I’ve talked about advertising on several occasions. Today, however, we will look at the different types of advertisements that are created to cater to a specific target market. Let us begin with political advertising as an example.
Political advertising consists of communications that support or oppose a candidate for nomination or election to a public office or a political party office (including county and precinct chairs). This type of advertising includes communications supporting or opposing an officeholder, a political party, or a measure (a ballot proposition).
Political advertising is a daunting task because it reaches out to the entire country. The campaign must include at least a dozen advertisements. The mood of the people, as well as the current situation, must all be considered. Although rational appeals are not rejected, there is an overabundance of emotional appeal. There is both a negative and a positive message. There could also be a lot of mudslinging.
Within the context of the 4 Ps of marketing, we have the Product. Be it an FMCG product or an industrial good, we need to understand that advertising plays an important role in promoting the product. Be it at any stage of the product life cycle, every product needs to be communicated for varied reasons to its target customer as to why they ought to go for that product.
Only when a product is good and meets the needs of the consumer can the advertising objective be considered a success. Even a bad product can be kept in the market with good advertising, but what matters in the long run is the product’s ability to stand out in the minds of the consumers. If the consumer is familiar with the brand and the associated benefits of the product, the advertising goal can be easily met, resulting in an increase in sales.
Every successful advertising campaign requires product or brand knowledge, as well as a clear positioning derived from a well-thought-out marketing strategy. Packaging, trademarks, and other physical and psychic attributes of the product such as taste, color, texture, aroma, style, and design are also important elements in good product advertising. Before incorporating these product attributes into advertising messages delivered through various advertising media, the saleability influence of these product attributes must be evaluated.
Now, product advertising is of 3 types, namely:
- Pioneering or instructive advertising: This type of advertising attempts to stimulate the primary demand for a product category rather than a specific brand. Malaysia Tourism, for example, made an indelible mark in the field of pioneering advertising with their colorful TV commercial and slogan ‘Malaysia – Truly Asia.’ The product category is introduced first, with an educational intent that appeals to both the consumer’s rational and emotional being. At the introductory stage of the PLC this type of advertising is beneficial. Generating awareness is the main function of advertising here.
- Competitive or Persuasive advertising: Here selective demand for a specific product brand is stimulated. By this point, the product has become established in the market and has reached the growth or maturity stage of the PLC. Very competitive to market forces. Competitive advertising is again of two types:
- Direct type, where it seeks to stimulate immediate buying action.
- Indirect type, here the benefit of the product is emphasized in the anticipation of the consumer’s final action of buying.
- Retentive or Reminder oriented: The product now has a firm footing in the market place. Its sales may start to fall at a later point. The buyer must be reminded about the product to sustain his loyalty. It is a sales pitch approach in which the buyer is judged on his or her willingness to continue using the product. The goal here is to keep the brand name in front of the viewer’s eye. Used at both the maturation and decline stages.